Menotti version click here. There was no restriction on the method of dietary assessment provided that the method involved a computation of the amount of fruit and vegetable intake and not just the frequency of intake.
The high relative risk associated with low smoking levels is seen clearly in individual cohort studies supplementary table B. Calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite deposits in the muscular layer of the blood vessels appear to play a significant role in stiffening the arteries and inducing the early phase of coronary arteriosclerosis.
Three large studies from different countries: Abstract Background It is hypothesized that low selenium concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and that selenium supplements prevent coronary heart disease.
Model reliability We checked the reliability of the regression models by comparing the estimated relative risks for smoking one, five, and 20 cigarettes per day with those seen in several individual studies that reported results specifically for low consumption one to seven cigarettes per day. For instance, fruit juices were included with fruit in some studies and potatoes were included with vegetables in others.
Current recommendations on dietary intake of selenium are based on optimizing the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidases 2. Limitations of study Our analyses also had some limitations. Discussion We have shown that a large proportion of the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke comes from smoking only a few cigarettes.
Only one study adjusted for second-hand smoke, 32 and the reported relative risks for coronary heart disease associated with one versus 20 cigarettes per day were 1.
In randomized trials, the pooled relative risk in a comparison of supplements containing selenium with placebo was 0. HDL high density lipoprotein has a protective effect over development of coronary artery disease. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction.
Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. The prespecified criteria were: Also, we found no evidence of a negative trend between size of relative risk for smoking 20 cigarettes per day and last calendar year of follow-up which might suggest many heavy smokers cutting down, and whether this increases over time: Among women five studies28 38 40 47 55 the relative risks for stroke were 1.
However, the recommendation to eat fruit and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases is mainly based on observational epidemiological studies, which leaves much uncertainty regarding the causal mechanism of this association. Potential confounding is worth considering. The pooled relative risks for the other nine studies that did not allow for multiple confounders were 1.
Denmark, Norway, and South Korea specifically examined the effect of reduced smoking on risk of cardiovascular disease. Supporting biological mechanisms Substantial biological evidence shows that components of cigarette smoke lead to endothelial injury, cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis and acute thrombosis, and decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Results The Seven Countries Study provided evidence confirming the original hypotheses, that elevated mean blood cholesterol levels and intake of saturated fatty acids is a major and apparently necessary factor in the population burden of atherosclerotic diseases.
Although cutting down has clear benefits, particularly for risk of cancer, the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk is not as large as smokers might expect.
Thus, we included in the analysis only the following food groups named in the articles: Nine studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis that consisted of 91, men,women, and 5, CHD events. A few datasets of cardiovascular disease and smoking are publicly available, but our aim was to be comprehensive and not restrict ourselves to having only a few studies.
Dietary cholesterol does not appear to have a significant effect on blood cholesterol and thus recommendations about its consumption may not be needed. We also hope to raise more awareness of the subject among cardiovascular health professionals, primary care physicians, and smoking cessation specialists.
The objective of the present meta-analysis was to synthesize results from observational studies of the association of selenium biomarkers with coronary heart disease endpoints and from results of clinical trials of the efficacy of selenium supplements in preventing coronary heart disease endpoints.
More evidence exists on the beliefs about health and reduced smoking as opposed to quittingin addition to the large US study mentioned in the introduction.Most trials in our meta-analysis used doses of ≥ μg selenium/d, yet the overall reduction in coronary heart disease was only 11%.
Thus, observational studies may also overestimate the association between selenium and coronary heart disease. Typically, coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle) develops atherosclerosis.
With atherosclerosis, the artery's lining becomes hardened, stiffened, and accumulates deposits of calcium, fatty lipids, and abnormal inflammatory cells – to.
Objective To use the relation between cigarette consumption and cardiovascular disease to quantify the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke for light smoking (one to five cigarettes/day). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Data sources Medline to Maywith manual searches of references. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease and affects million Americans. 1 Common symptoms of CAD include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath and heart palpitations.
The intake of trans fat has been associated with coronary heart disease, sudden death from cardiac causes, and diabetes. This article reviews the evidence for physiological and cellular effects of trans fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration.
Srinivas K, Raghavendra Rao R, Govardhan A, “Analysis of Coronary Heart Disease and Prediction of Heart Attack in Coal Mining Regions Using Data Mining Techniques”, The 5th International Conference on Computer Science & Education Hefei,China.Download